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In a series of interviews in Europe and Asia, Philip Morris executive Andrew Cave said company employees are under strict instructions to obey both the company`s own conduct policies and local law in the countries where they operate. Cave, a director of corporate affairs, said that while Philip Morris disagrees with some aspects of the FCTC treaty and consults with delegates offsite during its conferences, ultimately the delegations \"make their own decisions.\"
The attempt to undo Australia`s regulations has had a chilling effect elsewhere. It slowed the introduction of plain-packaging rules in New Zealand. Citing the risk that tobacco companies may \"mount legal challenges,\" the government announced in 2013 that it was postponing the move and waiting to \"see what happens with Australia`s legal cases.\" The legislation is now scheduled to go into effect next year.
With 600 corporate affairs executives, according to a November 2015 internal email, Philip Morris has one of the world`s biggest corporate lobbying arms. That army, and $7 billion-plus in annual net profit, gives Philip Morris the resources to overwhelm the FCTC.
The FCTC traditionally makes decisions by consensus, and so influencing a single national delegation can have an outsized impact. The treaty has a key clause meant to keep the industry from unduly influencing delegations. Article 5.3, as it`s known, says nations should protect their public health policies from tobacco interests. Guidelines that accompany Article 5.3 recommend that countries interact with the industry only when \"strictly necessary.\"
While other major tobacco companies also sent people to Delhi in November, Philip Morris was distinguished by its stealth. Executives from the company did not sign in with their tobacco industry colleagues at the FCTC convention center and stayed at a hotel about an hour`s drive away.
The attempt to undo Australia`s regulations has had a chilling effect elsewhere. It slowed the introduction of plain-packaging rules in New Zealand. Citing the risk that tobacco companies may \"mount legal challenges,\" the government announced in 2013 that it was postponing the move and waiting to \"see what happens with Australia`s legal cases.\" The legislation is now scheduled to go into effect next year.
Philip Morris isn`t alone in seeking to weaken the treaty. Ahead of the 2012 FCTC conference, in Seoul, four cigarette giants - Philip Morris, British American Tobacco (BAT), Japan Tobacco International and Imperial Brands Plc - formed an \"informal industry Working Group\" to oppose various proposals on tobacco taxation, according to an internal BAT document reviewed by Reuters.
In 2008, Altria Group Inc split up its Philip Morris business. Philip Morris USA, which remains a subsidiary of Altria, sells Marlboro and other brands in the United States. Philip Morris International was spun off, and handles business abroad. Since the split, Philip Morris International shares have more than doubled and Altria`s have more than tripled.
In 2008, Altria Group Inc split up its Philip Morris business. Philip Morris USA, which remains a subsidiary of Altria, sells Marlboro and other brands in the United States. Philip Morris International was spun off, and handles business abroad. Since the split, Philip Morris International shares have more than doubled and Altria`s have more than tripled.
An early draft asked parties to support efforts to exclude tobacco from trade pacts and to prevent the industry from \"abusing\" trade and investment rules. In the end, the proposal was watered down. The final decision only reminded parties of \"the possibility to take into account their public health objectives in their negotiation of trade and investment agreements.\" There was no mention of excluding tobacco.
Dating from 2009 to 2016, the thousands of pages include emails between executives, PowerPoint presentations, planning papers, policy toolkits, national lobbying plans and market analyses. Taken as a whole, they present a company that has focused its vast global resources on bringing to heel the world`s tobacco control treaty.
In his Moscow conference email, Koddermann also expressed pleasure at the fate of a proposal on farmers. Initial language would have recommended that countries restrict support for tobacco growers. The proposal was \"significantly watered down,\" he wrote. \"This is a very positive result.\"
Gustavo Bosio, at the time a manager for international trade, chimed in a few days after the conference in an email: \"These excellent results are a direct consequence of the remarkable efforts of all PMI regions and markets during the past two years and throughout the intense week in Moscow.\"
In his Moscow conference email, Koddermann also expressed pleasure at the fate of a proposal on farmers. Initial language would have recommended that countries restrict support for tobacco growers. The proposal was \"significantly watered down,\" he wrote. \"This is a very positive result.\"A 1989 document revealed one company`s plan to fight threats to the industry. \"WHO`s impact and influence is indisputable,\" the document said. It went on to contemplate \"countermeasures designed to contain/neutralize/re-orient the WHO.\"
Indeed, the tobacco industry has weathered the tighter regulation. There has been only a slight 1.9 percent decline in global cigarette sales since the treaty took effect in 2005, and more people smoked daily in 2015 than a decade earlier, studies show. The Thomson Reuters Global Tobacco Index, which tracks tobacco stocks, has risen more than 100 percent in the past decade, largely due to price increases.
In two interviews at her Geneva office, da Costa e Silva, a medical doctor who holds a PhD in public health and has a dyed pink streak in her hair, explained why the FCTC banned attendance by any member of the public at the 2014 biennial conference in Moscow. The ban came in response to efforts by tobacco executives to use public badges to get inside the venue, she said, adding that industry representatives then started borrowing badges from delegates they knew to gain entry.
In a series of interviews in Europe and Asia, Philip Morris executive Andrew Cave said company employees are under strict instructions to obey both the company`s own conduct policies and local law in the countries where they operate. Cave, a director of corporate affairs, said that while Philip Morris disagrees with some aspects of the FCTC treaty and consults with delegates offsite during its conferences, ultimately the delegations \"make their own decisions.\"
NEW DELHI/LAUSANNE, Switzerland July 13 (Reuters) - A group of cigarette company executives stood in the lobby of a drab convention center near New Delhi last November. They were waiting for credentials to enter the World Health Organization`s global tobacco treaty conference, one designed to curb smoking and combat the influence of the cigarette industry.
\"You`re looking at illicit trade, you`re looking at tax regimes, you`re looking at international law,\" he said. \"Now each of these areas, it`s logical, if you want to really tackle the trade and tobacco smuggling, illicit trade, who would you go to? You wouldn`t go to the health ministry.\"
The Delhi conference ended as it began, with treaty Secretariat officials not knowing where Philip Morris had been or what it had done. The company had flown in a team of executives, used a squad of identical vans to ferry officials in New Delhi, and then left town without a trace.
\"You`re looking at illicit trade, you`re looking at tax regimes, you`re looking at international law,\" he said. \"Now each of these areas, it`s logical, if you want to really tackle the trade and tobacco smuggling, illicit trade, who would you go to? You wouldn`t go to the health ministry.\"
In some instances, Philip Morris` lobbying plainly failed. In July 2015, the Ugandan parliament passed sweeping new anti-tobacco laws inspired by the treaty. All that was needed was President Yoweri Museveni`s signature, and the small African nation would become a leader on the continent in implementing a strict interpretation of the FCTC.
The FCTC guidelines on taxation did ultimately include a WHO recommendation for a minimum tax of 70 percent - something Philip Morris opposed. But the proposal to give the treaty more sway over trade disputes was weakened, and measures to strengthen the legal liability of cigarette companies were delayed.
Museveni stared for a moment at the Philip Morris executive and a representative from a major tobacco buyer who`d come with him. The president then declared: \"Slavery ended a long time ago.\" There was a long silence in the room, recalled Ndyanabangi. Museveni said Uganda didn`t need tobacco, and the meeting was over. The president signed the bill that September.
The composition of FCTC delegations sent by governments has changed to include more members who aren`t involved in health policy. That`s in line with what Philip Morris and other tobacco companies want: Philip Morris, as well as British American Tobacco, has sought to move the balance of the membership away from public health officials and toward ministries like finance and trade. Such agencies, said the former Philip Morris executive, benefit from tobacco tax revenues and attach less weight to health concerns.
One roadblock was a campaign to stop the 2011 introduction of rules in Australia banning logos and distinctive coloring on cigarette packs. The company`s litigation and arbitration against the measure ultimately were dismissed - but not before five countries filed complaints against Australia on the same subject at the World Trade Organization. The global trade body has yet to announce a decision in the matter.
NEW DELHI/LAUSANNE, Switzerland July 13 (Reuters) - A group of cigarette company executives stood in the lobby of a drab convention center near New Delhi last November. They were waiting for credentials to enter the World Health Organization`s global tobacco treaty conference, one designed to curb smoking and combat the influence of the cigarette industry.The FCTC guidelines on taxation did ultimately include a WHO recommendation for a minimum tax of 70 percent - something Philip Morris opposed. But the proposal to give the treaty more sway over trade disputes was weakened, and measures to strengthen the legal liability of cigarette companies were delayed.
The Vietnamese delegation spoke up often during the Moscow meeting. A review of notes compiled by tobacco-control groups accredited as observers showed Vietnam`s interjections frequently mirrored Philip Morris` positions on tobacco-control regulations. Just like the tobacco giant, the Vietnamese said a higher tax on cigarettes would lead to more illicit sales. Like Philip Morris, they said the FCTC should stay out of trade disputes. And like Philip Morris, they opposed proposals to set uniform parameters for the legal liability of tobacco companies.
In fact, executives from the largest publicly traded tobacco firm had flown in from around the world to New Delhi for the anti-tobacco meeting. Unknown to treaty organizers, they were staying at a hotel an hour from the convention center, working from an operations room there. Philip Morris International would soon be holding secret meetings with delegates from the government of Vietnam and other treaty members.
In a subsequent email, Cave said: \"Representatives from Philip Morris International met with delegates from Vietnam\" during the Delhi conference \"to discuss policy issues and this complied fully with PMI`s internal procedures and the laws and regulations of Vietnam.\"
Matthew Myers, who heads the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, said multiple countries came prepared to consciously block action. He said he heard delegates making arguments \"I haven´t heard in 25 years.\"
The win was significant. A former Philip Morris employee said the company has routinely used trade treaties to challenge tobacco control laws. The aim, he said, was \"to scare governments away from doing regulatory changes.\" Even though the tobacco industry has lost a series of major legal battles, its suits have served to discourage the implementation of regulations that curb smoking. Those delays can yield years of unimpeded sales.
At the end of the Moscow meeting, on Oct. 18, 2014, Koddermann sent an email congratulating a 33-person Philip Morris team on their success in diluting or blocking measures intended to strengthen tobacco controls and reduce cigarette sales. The gains he touted at the end of the week-long conference were the culmination of a two-year effort, his email said.
Asked by Reuters about the interaction between Ky and the Vietnam representatives, Philip Morris executive Andrew Cave thumped on the table in a bar at the hotel where company representatives were staying. Reuters should focus, he said, on efforts by the industry to develop so-called reduced-risk products - those that deliver nicotine without the burning of tobacco and which the company says reduce harm.
Since the FCTC came into force, it has persuaded dozens of nations to boost taxes on tobacco products, pass laws banning smoking in public places and increase the size of health warnings on cigarette packs. Treaty members gather every two years to consider new provisions or strengthen old ones at a meeting called the Conference of the Parties, or COP, which first convened in 2006 in Geneva.
The day the Moscow meeting ended, Koddermann received an email from his colleague Nguyen Thanh Ky, a leading corporate affairs executive for Vietnam. Ky said he had a \"debrief lunch\" with the Vietnamese delegation and had a good outcome to report: The delegation was in favor of \"moderate and reasonable measures\" to be implemented over a \"practical timeline,\" he wrote. He did not specify which measures they discussed.
The Philip Morris documents leave questions unanswered. In some cases, the documents show the company hatching plans to change an anti-smoking regulation or to monitor activists, but don`t always make clear to what extent or how the plans were executed, if at all. The 2014 PowerPoint presentation called for \"achieving scrutiny\" of tobacco control advocates and said a \"global project team\" had been established for this purpose. It did not list what means would be used.
The object of these clandestine activities: the WHO`s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, or FCTC, a treaty aimed at reducing smoking globally. Reuters has found that Philip Morris International is running a secretive campaign to block or weaken treaty provisions that save millions of lives by curbing tobacco use.
There was jubilation among anti-smoking advocates when the treaty was adopted in 2003. The treaty, which took effect in 2005, made it possible to push for measures that once seemed radical, such as smoke-free bars. About 90 percent of all nations eventually joined. A big holdout is the United States, which signed the treaty but has yet to ratify it.
The idea of a global tobacco treaty had been discussed among health advocates since at least 1979, when a WHO committee suggested the possibility. Gro Harlem Brundtland, a former prime minister of Norway who became director-general of the WHO in 1998, made it happen.When the FCTC delegates gather, lives hang in the balance. Decisions taken at the conferences over the past decade, including a ban on smoking in public places, are saving millions of lives, according to researchers at Georgetown University Medical Center.
There was jubilation among anti-smoking advocates when the treaty was adopted in 2003. The treaty, which took effect in 2005, made it possible to push for measures that once seemed radical, such as smoke-free bars. About 90 percent of all nations eventually joined. A big holdout is the United States, which signed the treaty but has yet to ratify it.
The 2014 PowerPoint presentation outlined the need to identify ways to gather intelligence during the Delhi conference. In a separate 2015 planning document, the company talks about the arrangement of farmer protests in the run-up to the meeting. Such protests did take place - including one in front of WHO offices in New Delhi. Reuters couldn`t determine whether Philip Morris was behind those demonstrations.
Philip Morris works to subvert the treaty on multiple levels. It targets the FCTC conferences where delegates gather to decide on anti-smoking guidelines. It also lobbies at the country level, where the makeup of FCTC delegations is determined and treaty decisions are turned into legislation.
The day the Moscow meeting ended, Koddermann received an email from his colleague Nguyen Thanh Ky, a leading corporate affairs executive for Vietnam. Ky said he had a \"debrief lunch\" with the Vietnamese delegation and had a good outcome to report: The delegation was in favor of \"moderate and reasonable measures\" to be implemented over a \"practical timeline,\" he wrote. He did not specify which measures they discussed.
The documents, combined with reporting in 14 countries from Brazil to Uganda to Vietnam, reveal that a goal of Philip Morris is to increase the number of delegates at the treaty conventions who are not from health ministries or involved in public health. That`s happening: A Reuters analysis of delegates to the FCTC`s biennial conference shows a rise since the first convention in 2006 in the number of officials from ministries like trade, finance and agriculture for whom tobacco revenues can be a higher priority than health concerns.
But the article - a single sentence - contains a loophole Philip Morris has exploited. The sentence ends with the words \"in accordance with national law,\" opening the door to arguments by pro-tobacco forces that any lobbying that`s legal in a certain country is permissible when interacting with that country`s representatives. They also argue that a sentence in a related document, the guidelines for Article 5.3, allows for such interactions to take place as long as they are conducted transparently.
Confidential company documents and interviews with current and former Philip Morris employees reveal an offensive that stretches from the Americas to Africa to Asia, from hardscrabble tobacco fields to the halls of political power, in what may be one of the broadest corporate lobbying efforts in existence.
In two interviews at her Geneva office, da Costa e Silva, a medical doctor who holds a PhD in public health and has a dyed pink streak in her hair, explained why the FCTC banned attendance by any member of the public at the 2014 biennial conference in Moscow. The ban came in response to efforts by tobacco executives to use public badges to get inside the venue, she said, adding that industry representatives then started borrowing badges from delegates they knew to gain entry.
Between 2007 and 2014, more than 53 million people in 88 countries stopped smoking because those nations imposed stringent anti-smoking measures recommended by the WHO, according to their December 2016 study. Because of the treaty, an estimated 22 million smoking-related deaths will be averted, the researchers found.
Dating from 2009 to 2016, the thousands of pages include emails between executives, PowerPoint presentations, planning papers, policy toolkits, national lobbying plans and market analyses. Taken as a whole, they present a company that has focused its vast global resources on bringing to heel the world`s tobacco control treaty.
The FCTC traditionally makes decisions by consensus, and so influencing a single national delegation can have an outsized impact. The treaty has a key clause meant to keep the industry from unduly influencing delegations. Article 5.3, as it`s known, says nations should protect their public health policies from tobacco interests. Guidelines that accompany Article 5.3 recommend that countries interact with the industry only when \"strictly necessary.\"
Reuters analyzed the rosters of the almost 3,500 accredited delegation members who have attended the seven FCTC conferences since 2006. The analysis found that there were more than six health delegates for every finance-related delegate in 2006. In Delhi last year, that ratio had fallen to just over three health delegates for every finance delegate. The number of delegates from finance, agriculture and trade fields has risen from a few dozen in 2006 to more than 100 in recent years.But an FCTC report shows that implementation of important sections of the treaty is stalling. There has been no further progress in the implementation of 7 out of 16 \"substantive\" treaty articles since 2014, according to a report by the FCTC Secretariat in June last year.
Philip Morris International says there is nothing improper about its executives engaging with government officials. \"As a company in a highly regulated industry, speaking with governments is part of our everyday business,\" Tony Snyder, vice president of communications, said in a statement in response to Reuters` findings. \"The fact that Reuters has seen internal emails discussing our engagement with governments does not make those interactions inappropriate.\"
The 45-page paper, whose existence hasn`t been previously reported, noted that the group would coordinate \"to the extent that these issues do not raise any anti-competitive concerns.\" The paper outlined a global campaign planned by BAT to counter the FCTC, which was \"increasingly going beyond\" its mandate. And it listed objectives, including a bid to block discussions around the introduction of a minimum 70 percent tax on tobacco.
In an internal document, the company says it supported the enactment of the treaty. But Philip Morris has come to view it as a \"regulatory runaway train\" driven by \"anti-tobacco extremists\" - a description contained in the document, a 2014 PowerPoint presentation.
BAT declined to answer questions about the industry working group. Both Imperial and Japan Tobacco International said they didn`t want to comment on a document from a competitor. Japan Tobacco International said its tax experts met with counterparts from other tobacco companies to discuss treaty guidelines on taxation ahead of the 2012 conference. Philip Morris did not comment on the document.
Philip Morris International`s operational headquarters are in Lausanne, Switzerland, down the street from a patch of Gallo-Roman ruins, in a sleek building with a cafeteria, gym and a patio facing Lake Geneva. From there, the company is working to hobble the treaty.
The Vietnamese delegation spoke up often during the Moscow meeting. A review of notes compiled by tobacco-control groups accredited as observers showed Vietnam`s interjections frequently mirrored Philip Morris` positions on tobacco-control regulations. Just like the tobacco giant, the Vietnamese said a higher tax on cigarettes would lead to more illicit sales. Like Philip Morris, they said the FCTC should stay out of trade disputes. And like Philip Morris, they opposed proposals to set uniform parameters for the legal liability of tobacco companies.
The treaty is overseen by 19 staff at a Secretariat office hosted by the WHO in Geneva. The Secretariat spends on average less than $6 million a year. Even when buttressed by anti-smoking groups, the Secretariat is outgunned. Its budget for this year and last year for supporting the treaty clause on combating tobacco company influence is less than $460,000.
Cave, the Philip Morris corporate affairs executive, confirmed the company tries to persuade governments to change the composition of delegations. Health officials, he said, aren`t equipped to handle the intricacies of issues such as taxation.
Matthew Myers, who heads the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, said multiple countries came prepared to consciously block action. He said he heard delegates making arguments \"I haven´t heard in 25 years.\"
With 600 corporate affairs executives, according to a November 2015 internal email, Philip Morris has one of the world`s biggest corporate lobbying arms. That army, and $7 billion-plus in annual net profit, gives Philip Morris the resources to overwhelm the FCTC.
The object of Philip Morris` efforts, according to the 2014 PowerPoint on corporate affairs, is to \"move tobacco issues away\" from health ministries and demonstrate there are broader public interests at play - that \"it`s not about tobacco.\"
The 45-page paper, whose existence hasn`t been previously reported, noted that the group would coordinate \"to the extent that these issues do not raise any anti-competitive concerns.\" The paper outlined a global campaign planned by BAT to counter the FCTC, which was \"increasingly going beyond\" its mandate. And it listed objectives, including a bid to block discussions around the introduction of a minimum 70 percent tax on tobacco.
But an FCTC report shows that implementation of important sections of the treaty is stalling. There has been no further progress in the implementation of 7 out of 16 \"substantive\" treaty articles since 2014, according to a report by the FCTC Secretariat in June last year.
Internal company communications reveal the scope of Philip Morris` operation during the 2014 FCTC treaty meeting in Moscow. The company set up a \"Coordinating Room\" that could seat 42 people, according to the 2014 PowerPoint presentation, titled \"Corporate affairs approach and issues.\"Da Costa e Silva isn`t opposed to having delegates from trade ministries, but she says their primary focus needs to be on health. And she was concerned by the makeup of the Vietnamese delegation. In a letter to the Vietnamese prime minister in late 2015, she asked that tobacco industry employees be excluded from the delegation. If they weren`t, she wrote, Vietnam might be \"unable to play a full part in discussions.\"
When the FCTC delegates gather, lives hang in the balance. Decisions taken at the conferences over the past decade, including a ban on smoking in public places, are saving millions of lives, according to researchers at Georgetown University Medical Center.
Museveni stared for a moment at the Philip Morris executive and a representative from a major tobacco buyer who`d come with him. The president then declared: \"Slavery ended a long time ago.\" There was a long silence in the room, recalled Ndyanabangi. Museveni said Uganda didn`t need tobacco, and the meeting was over. The president signed the bill that September.
Between 2007 and 2014, more than 53 million people in 88 countries stopped smoking because those nations imposed stringent anti-smoking measures recommended by the WHO, according to their December 2016 study. Because of the treaty, an estimated 22 million smoking-related deaths will be averted, the researchers found.
Da Costa e Silva isn`t opposed to having delegates from trade ministries, but she says their primary focus needs to be on health. And she was concerned by the makeup of the Vietnamese delegation. In a letter to the Vietnamese prime minister in late 2015, she asked that tobacco industry employees be excluded from the delegation. If they weren`t, she wrote, Vietnam might be \"unable to play a full part in discussions.\"
But she had only a partial picture of the forces ranged against her. She wasn`t aware of the fact that Philip Morris had a large team operating throughout the convention in Moscow, or the details of its activities in New Delhi last November.
Cave, the Philip Morris corporate affairs executive, confirmed the company tries to persuade governments to change the composition of delegations. Health officials, he said, aren`t equipped to handle the intricacies of issues such as taxation.
Koddermann, in his email to colleagues on the last day of the conference, declared victory, describing the change as \"a tremendous outcome.\" Overall, the company achieved its \"trade related campaign objectives,\" including \"avoiding a declaration of health over trade\" and \"avoiding the recognition of the FCTC as an international standard,\" he wrote.
The documents shed light on one key objective in Philip Morris` FCTC campaign: Keep tobacco within the ambit of international trade deals, so that the company has a way to mount legal campaigns against tobacco regulations.
The documents, combined with reporting in 14 countries from Brazil to Uganda to Vietnam, reveal that a goal of Philip Morris is to increase the number of delegates at the treaty conventions who are not from health ministries or involved in public health. That`s happening: A Reuters analysis of delegates to the FCTC`s biennial conference shows a rise since the first convention in 2006 in the number of officials from ministries like trade, finance and agriculture for whom tobacco revenues can be a higher priority than health concerns.
Over time, however, the industry`s lobbying has slowed the treaty`s progress. At the biennial conferences, the discussions have changed. In Moscow, for instance, there was a strong focus on trade and taxes. \"You could see from the floor that interventions were very, very, very much focusing on the trade aspects, many times even putting trade over health,\" the FCTC`s da Costa e Silva said in an interview last year.
In fact, executives from the largest publicly traded tobacco firm had flown in from around the world to New Delhi for the anti-tobacco meeting. Unknown to treaty organizers, they were staying at a hotel an hour from the convention center, working from an operations room there. Philip Morris International would soon be holding secret meetings with delegates from the government of Vietnam and other treaty members.
The anonymity and distance helped Philip Morris approach delegates covertly. On the second day of the conference, a white Toyota van pulled away from the front of the Hyatt Regency hotel - where Philip Morris had its operations room - and headed for the FCTC treaty venue. The van was carrying Ky, its corporate affairs executive from Vietnam.
\"We`re respectful of the fact that this is their week and their event,\" said Cave in an interview in New Delhi, as the parties to the treaty met last November. Asked in an earlier interview whether Philip Morris conducts a formal campaign targeting the treaty`s biennial conferences, Cave gave a flat \"no.\"
\"Some people think that with tobacco, you`ve won the battle,\" said former Finnish Health Minister Pekka Puska, who chaired an FCTC committee last year. \"No way,\" he said. \"The tobacco industry is more powerful than ever.\"In this July 11, 2017 photo, a Pemex security employee walks through a corn field where an illegal tap into a state-owned pipeline was spotted in San Bartolome Hueyapan, Tepeaca, Mexico. Arrests of fuel thieves are rarely made because when police move in thieves run and abandon the trucks. Other tactics to avoid capture include pushing half-full fuel tanks off the back of fleeing trucks, parking vehicles cross-wise on dirt roads or even using chains of women and children as human shields. (AP Photo/Eduardo Verdugo)
Within weeks of returning home, the clothes Benson had worn during the show`s season finale seemed to shrink. He caught himself stopping by his favorite fast-food chain more and more on the way home from work to appease his appetite for the foods he missed.
As the police officers waited near the cornfield in Puebla, they saw a huge column of smoke rise into the sky after a clandestine warehouse of stolen fuel went up in flames about two miles down the road.
Also, supplement labels must carry the following disclaimer: \"This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.\"
But just because natural weight-loss supplements and other nutritional supplements aren`t approved by the FDA, that doesn`t mean they`re unsafe. Over the years, there have been many pharmaceutical agents that won FDA approval but due to serious, sometimes fatal, effects were pulled from the market.
In this July 11, 2017 photo, state police drive past a column of smoke rising from a burning warehouse of stolen fuel, as they wait for armed fuel thieves to leave a cornfield near Tepeaca, Puebla state, Mexico. A former soldier who was patrolling the pipeline for Pemex said the police officers had earlier been attacked by three armored trucks, explaining their reluctance to confront the thieves a second time. (AP Photo/Eduardo Verdugo)
\"People start to get comfortable, sort of like how you might get a job you`ve really been working hard towards, and then after you get it you say to yourself, ‘Oh I knew I`d get that job.` And they start accepting over and over again.\"
Although overweight and obesity are considered to be appearance problems, they are in fact serious conditions, directly linked to a number of disabling and life-threatening diseases. Among them are heart disease, stroke, some cancers, diabetes, high blood pressure, gall bladder disease, osteoarthritis, and mental health problems.
The driver, Kishore Kumar, said in an interview that he dropped the two men off at a local hotel. Kumar said that on several other occasions that week, he took Ky to pick up people from the Hotel Formule1, a budget lodging where Vietnam`s delegation was staying during the conference.
One roadblock was a campaign to stop the 2011 introduction of rules in Australia banning logos and distinctive coloring on cigarette packs. The company`s litigation and arbitration against the measure ultimately were dismissed - but not before five countries filed complaints against Australia on the same subject at the World Trade Organization. The global trade body has yet to announce a decision in the matter.
Vietnam`s delegation, for example, has changed markedly. At the first FCTC conference in 2006, none of its four delegates were from finance or trade ministries. By 2014, in Moscow, there were 13 delegates, with at least four from finance-related ministries, including the chief delegate. Vietnam`s foreign ministry did not respond to questions about the delegation.
In Moscow, one proposal initially called for carving out tobacco from trade pacts. International trade treaties often include provisions, such as the protection of trademarks, that Philip Morris has used to challenge anti-smoking measures. If tobacco were taken out of the treaties, as suggested by the proposal, Philip Morris could be deprived of many such legal arguments.
A few minutes later, a man in a dark suit walked out of the conference center, passed the van and stopped at a street corner. The van did a U-turn, and a Reuters reporter saw the man in the suit quickly climb in. He was a senior member of Vietnam`s delegation to the FCTC conference: Nguyen Vinh Quoc, a Vietnamese government official.
Reuters analyzed the rosters of the almost 3,500 accredited delegation members who have attended the seven FCTC conferences since 2006. The analysis found that there were more than six health delegates for every finance-related delegate in 2006. In Delhi last year, that ratio had fallen to just over three health delegates for every finance delegate. The number of delegates from finance, agriculture and trade fields has risen from a few dozen in 2006 to more than 100 in recent years.
An early draft asked parties to support efforts to exclude tobacco from trade pacts and to prevent the industry from \"abusing\" trade and investment rules. In the end, the proposal was watered down. The final decision only reminded parties of \"the possibility to take into account their public health objectives in their negotiation of trade and investment agreements.\" There was no mention of excluding tobacco.\"The key point is that you can be on TV, you can lose enormous amounts of weight, you can go on for six years, but you can`t get away from a basic biological reality,\" Michael Schwartz, an obesity and diabetes researcher at the University of Washington, told the Times last year
. \"As long as you are below your initial weight, your body is going to try to get you back.\"
But nutritionists and dietitians counter that Roth`s new show is another version of what they see as a dangerous approach to weight loss that favors quick results over science. As with many things in the world of health and nutrition, the truth falls somewhere in between.
The 2014 PowerPoint presentation outlined the need to identify ways to gather intelligence during the Delhi conference. In a separate 2015 planning document, the company talks about the arrangement of farmer protests in the run-up to the meeting. Such protests did take place - including one in front of WHO offices in New Delhi. Reuters couldn`t determine whether Philip Morris was behind those demonstrations.
Internal company communications reveal the scope of Philip Morris` operation during the 2014 FCTC treaty meeting in Moscow. The company set up a \"Coordinating Room\" that could seat 42 people, according to the 2014 PowerPoint presentation, titled \"Corporate affairs approach and issues.\"
Since the FCTC came into force, it has persuaded dozens of nations to boost taxes on tobacco products, pass laws banning smoking in public places and increase the size of health warnings on cigarette packs. Treaty members gather every two years to consider new provisions or strengthen old ones at a meeting called the Conference of the Parties, or COP, which first convened in 2006 in Geneva.
The fuel theft gangs often have the support of corrupt local officials and the residents of towns that rely on the income from pipeline tapping. Two mayors have been arrested for involvement in the trade.
Overeating. If you habitually eat more calories than you burn off, the surplus is stored as body fat. So why do we overeat? There`s no simple explanation, really, but a lot of it has to do with hunger, appetite, and satiety mechanisms that tell us when to eat and how much. They are centered in the hypothalamus, a small area of the brain located in the middle of the skull. The hypothalamus is the body`s center for controlling food intake. It also regulates thirst, metabolism, and body temperature.
Hunger is largely a physiological drive. About every four hours, your body signals that it`s time to eat by creating sensations such as hunger pangs or a feeling of low energy. After you start eating a meal, it takes about twenty minutes for your body to send satiety signals to the hypothalamus that you`re full. Continuing to eat beyond that points leaves you feeling stuffed. By eating when you`re hungry and stopping when you`re full, you`ll have little trouble maintaining a healthy weight.
A few minutes later, a man in a dark suit walked out of the conference center, passed the van and stopped at a street corner. The van did a U-turn, and a Reuters reporter saw the man in the suit quickly climb in. He was a senior member of Vietnam`s delegation to the FCTC conference: Nguyen Vinh Quoc, a Vietnamese government official.
A 1989 document revealed one company`s plan to fight threats to the industry. \"WHO`s impact and influence is indisputable,\" the document said. It went on to contemplate \"countermeasures designed to contain/neutralize/re-orient the WHO.\"
This one-off example may be enough to prompt some people to change their behavior. But for many of those who struggle with weight, long-term behavioral changes are grueling. Results don`t come quickly, and many people simply give up.
\"They committed this barbarous act as a gesture of anger,\" said Morales, who claimed that vendors have recently raised the price of stolen fuel to near that of legitimate gasoline - it used to be half as much - because their supplies are being cut off.
Natural weight-loss supplements are one more weapon against obesity a disease that`s killing us and draining our pocketbooks. Health experts report that a majority of the world`s population is now overweight, and that obesity costs consumers billions of dollars a year for health care. In the United States alone, the financial toll of obesity is more than $100 billion annually.
Plump women whose body fat is distributed around and above the waist run a particularly high risk of developing endometrial cancer, one of the most common cancers that afflict women. It usually occurs after menopause, and if detected early, it`s almost always curable. Scientists speculate that one reason for the risk is that upper-body-obese women have higher levels of the female hormone estrogen, which can set the stage for endometrial cancer.
She was aided by outrage over documents that surfaced as part of the landmark 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, in which the four largest U.S. tobacco companies agreed to pay more than $200 billion to 46 U.S. states. The internal communications showed that tobacco executives lied for years about their knowledge of the deadly nature of cigarettes.Keep in mind that natural weight-loss supplements are derived from food or herbs and thus work with your body rather than against it (as many prescription medicines do). It`s always preferable to try the gentlest agent first. Some of these supplements do have some minor side effects, but they are far less serious than those of prescription diet pills.
\"In the morning there were 40 trucks loading,\" said Francisco, a security employee with the state oil company Petroleos Mexicanos, or Pemex, who asked that his last name not be used for safety reasons. \"We saw them loading, we went in, and they started shooting at us. The criminals had an armored car.\"
In May, the Trump administration even decided to pursue the Obama policy of easing some sanctions at least while completing a JCPOA review to decide -- in principle by Monday -- whether to continue lifting sanctions.
Leading the operation was executive Chris Koddermann. Formerly a lawyer and lobbyist in Canada, Koddermann joined Philip Morris in 2010. He is now a director of regulatory affairs in Lausanne. The PowerPoint describes the ideal corporate affairs executive as someone who is able to \"play the political game.\" Koddermann previously worked for federal and provincial cabinet ministers in Canada, according to his LinkedIn profile.
\"So being aware of what you`re craving — are you craving chocolate because you`ve just seen it?\" Whitehead says. \"Do you just need to relocate or move the chocolate inside a cupboard? Are you feeling emotional? Is something else going on? Is it a good time to call a friend to talk or maybe take a walk?\"
In this July 11, 2017 photo, a Pemex security employee stands by a truck abandoned by fuel thieves in the middle of a cornfield near an illegal tap into a state-owned pipeline in San Bartolome Hueyapan, Tepeaca, Mexico. The battle against fuel thieves has left fields littered with leaking illegal taps, abandoned fuel tanks and vehicles whose interiors have been ripped out to hold thousand-liter tanks. (AP Photo/Eduardo Verdugo)
Until only recently, it was assumed that a little weight gain at any age was okay. But studies have found that even a tiny gain can increase your odds of having a heart attack. In 1995, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) published new guidelines that said middle-age spread was un-healthy and that for good health, people in their sixties should weigh the same as trim people in their thirties.
\"We live in a society where making healthy choices and being at a healthy weight, it`s not defaulted toward that,\" says Bellatti. \"Unhealthy foods are cheaper and they`re everywhere; if you go to any store, you can buy a candy bar at the checkout but not a piece of fruit.\" 
In this July 11, 2017 photo, Pemex security employees inspect an illegal tap into a state-owned pipeline in the middle of a cornfield in San Bartolome Hueyapan, Tepeaca, Mexico. Stealing gasoline has become an industrial-scale operation, involving a string of villages and hamlets along pipeline routes across the country. (AP Photo/Eduardo Verdugo)
In an internal document, the company says it supported the enactment of the treaty. But Philip Morris has come to view it as a \"regulatory runaway train\" driven by \"anti-tobacco extremists\" - a description contained in the document, a 2014 PowerPoint presentation.
But during his presidential campaign, billionaire Republican Donald Trump made the accord a favorite target. In campaign speech after campaign speech, he pronounced it \"the worst deal ever,\" and he vowed, if elected, to \"rip it up.\"
Philip Morris International says there is nothing improper about its executives engaging with government officials. \"As a company in a highly regulated industry, speaking with governments is part of our everyday business,\" Tony Snyder, vice president of communications, said in a statement in response to Reuters` findings. \"The fact that Reuters has seen internal emails discussing our engagement with governments does not make those interactions inappropriate.\"
BAT declined to answer questions about the industry working group. Both Imperial and Japan Tobacco International said they didn`t want to comment on a document from a competitor. Japan Tobacco International said its tax experts met with counterparts from other tobacco companies to discuss treaty guidelines on taxation ahead of the 2012 conference. Philip Morris did not comment on the document.
Fuel theft in Mexico used to be a few villagers drilling holes in pipelines and carrying away the gasoline in jugs. But the heavy arms and violence seen in Tuesday`s confrontation in Puebla state reflect its growth into a billion-dollar business that supplies not just the people selling gas on the sides of highways - called \"huachicoleros\" - but factories and gasoline station chains.
In this July 11, 2017 photo, gasoline thieves wait in line to steal gas from an illegal tap into a state-owned pipeline, in the middle of a cornfield in San Bartolome Hueyapan, Tepeaca, Mexico. Fuel theft in Mexico used to be a few villagers drilling holes in pipelines and carrying away the gasoline in jugs. It has grown into a billion-dollar business that supplies not just the people selling gas on the sides of highways, but factories and gasoline station chains. (AP Photo/Eduardo Verdugo)Philip Morris International Inc is waging a secret campaign to subvert the World Health Organization`s anti-smoking treaty, which was designed to save lives by curbing tobacco use, a Reuters investigation published today reveals. In one of the largest-ever tobacco industry leaks, internal Philip Morris International documents seen by Reuters, combined with reporting in 14 countries, expose a clandestine lobbying operation that stretches from the Americas to Africa to Asia.
\"In my mind I just thought I`ve been training so hard I want to eat something I craved for a few months — a burger, fries, some ribs,\" Benson tells Business Insider. \"That was one of the things that propelled me to the finish line. I thought, when I`m done I`m going to get this. It was a reward.\"
* Grazing. Grazing is quite possibly the main cause of weight regain from bariatric surgery. After you`ve had surgery, you can out eat the procedure. Grazing is the mindless, hand to mouth type of eating. It is nibbling a little bit for long periods of time. You aren`t full but continually eating. Grazing is for cows on a pasture, not successful bariatric post-ops.
Studies suggest that people who`ve lost significant amounts of weight produce fewer of the hormones
that make human bodies feel full and more of the hormones that make us feel hungry. There`s evidence that the metabolism also slows down, perhaps because strict dieting convinces the body that it is starving, leading it to run as efficiently as it can
 and burn the fewest calories possible.
In some instances, Philip Morris` lobbying plainly failed. In July 2015, the Ugandan parliament passed sweeping new anti-tobacco laws inspired by the treaty. All that was needed was President Yoweri Museveni`s signature, and the small African nation would become a leader on the continent in implementing a strict interpretation of the FCTC.
The All England Club is the only major tennis tournament that still uses grass courts, which in itself is anachronistic: That once was also the surface for the U.S. Open and Australian Open, but decades ago. It`s the only one with rules mandating all-white attire for players. The only one with no play planned for the fortnight`s middle Sunday (last year was only the fourth time in the tournament`s lengthy history that rain in Week 1 necessitated scheduling matches on that day). The only one without advertising signs at the courts.
The Republican-controlled US Senate passed a bill in June to impose new sanctions on Tehran for its \"support for international terrorism.\" Meantime, the State Department, which since 1984 has declared Iran a \"state sponsor of terror,\" continues to punish Tehran for its ballistic missile program.
After vowing to drop out of the Paris climate agreement and questioning the Obama-era opening to Cuba, Trump would be dealing a terrible blow to his predecessor`s legacy if he decided to abandon the JCPOA.
\"If someone is using food as escapism or as comfort from emotional trauma, you have to deal with that,\" says Andy Bellatti
, a registered dietitian and the cofounder of Dietitians for Professional Integrity
. \"That takes time and that takes a very qualified professional to help you get to the bottom of that. That has nothing to do with weight loss tips or Bob Harper telling you to run an extra mile.\"
A recent study
published in the Journal of the American Medical Association illustrates just how hard sticking to a diet can be. For the study, 160 adults spent two years on one of four popular diets. For the first two months, they had to adhere to the diet fairly strictly; for the rest of the time, they were told they could be as strict or lenient as they wanted.
Vietnam`s delegation, for example, has changed markedly. At the first FCTC conference in 2006, none of its four delegates were from finance or trade ministries. By 2014, in Moscow, there were 13 delegates, with at least four from finance-related ministries, including the chief delegate. Vietnam`s foreign ministry did not respond to questions about the delegation.
In this July 11, 2017 photo, smoke rises from a warehouse storing stolen fuel near Tepeaca, Puebla state, Mexico. Authorities couldn`t enter the area to fight the blaze because they risked a confrontation with local villagers. \"They usually try to put the fires out themselves,\" said Assistant Public Safety Secretary Jose Tlachi. (AP Photo/Eduardo Verdugo)
Details of those plans are laid bare in a cache of Philip Morris documents reviewed by Reuters, one of the largest tobacco industry leaks ever. Reuters is publishing a selection of those papers in a searchable repository, The Philip Morris Files. website
FILE - In this Friday, July 7, 2017 file photo golfer Sergio Garcia, wearing his green Masters jacket, centre and fiancee Angela Akins sit in the Royal Box on day five at the Wimbledon Tennis Championships in London. When Masters champion Sergio Garcia sat in the Royal Box at Wimbledon last week, he showed up in his green jacket from Augusta National. Seemed fitting. The tennis and golf tournaments seem to be each other`s counterparts in many ways, starting with the reverence in which they`re held by many in the sports. (AP Photo/Alastair Grant, File)Healthy, well-nourished women who breastfeed while pregnant don´t seem to increase their risk of delivering prematurely, miscarrying, or having a low-birth-weight baby, the authors of a new research review conclude. But Gemma Lopez-Fernandez of Corporacio Sanitaria Parc Tauli in Barcelona, Spain, and colleagues write in the journal Women and Birth that more research is needed on the implications of nursing during pregnancy for mothers and children´s health.
The drugs have disturbing side effects. Fenfluramine can cause dry mouth, drowsiness, diarrhea, and, less frequently, heart palpitations. Phentermine can produce dry mouth, too, as well as nervousness, constipation, and insomnia. Dexfenfluramine has a rare but potentially fatal side effect primary pulmonary hypertension, in which the blood vessels supplying the lungs become scarred and thickened. The disease is progressive, ending in death within a few years.
But she had only a partial picture of the forces ranged against her. She wasn`t aware of the fact that Philip Morris had a large team operating throughout the convention in Moscow, or the details of its activities in New Delhi last November.
A large study conducted at Georgetown University, released in April 1998, found no evidence that dexfenfluramine caused heart-valve problems during the two or three months dieters usually took it. However, the study did suggest that long-term use of the drug could pose dangers.
\"We`re not going to change our strategy on that. Wimbledon wouldn`t be Wimbledon,\" Desmond said. \"The fans here and the fans around the world know who our partners are. You don`t have to knock somebody on the head and put banners in their face every 5 seconds. ... It`s not in our DNA.\"
Like endometrial cancer, most breast cancers have a hormonal link. As noted above, women with excess upper body fat have higher levels of estrogen, and some investigators think that these women run a significantly higher risk of developing breast cancer. Obesity doesn`t cause breast cancer, but it encourages the spread of existing cancer.
\"Of all the fuel that is stolen, only 10 percent is sold to the public\" by roadside vendors, said Jesus Morales, the top police official in Puebla state. \"The other 90 percent goes to big business groups, to gas stations, factories.\"
Also, there is a wealth of scientific evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of natural weight-loss products evidence you`ll read about here. Plus, many of these supplements have other health-promotion benefits. Natural supplements do many things! That`s one of their most redeeming values.
The suspects weren`t cartel traffickers loading a drug shipment, but gasoline thieves tapping a state-owned pipeline - a form of organized crime that is growing in Mexico and has led to a series of deadly encounters.
From 300 to 175 to 325
After spending five grueling months exercising and dieting as a \"Biggest Loser\" contestant, the first thing Benson did to celebrate his accomplishment was order a burger and fries.
\"We`re respectful of the fact that this is their week and their event,\" said Cave in an interview in New Delhi, as the parties to the treaty met last November. Asked in an earlier interview whether Philip Morris conducts a formal campaign targeting the treaty`s biennial conferences, Cave gave a flat \"no.\"
At the end, everyone who`d kept up with the eating plans had lost some weight and seen moderate improvements in their heart health. But a lot of people didn`t make it to the end — in one group, more than half of the participants dropped out.
This conclusion was based on American Cancer Society data on 324,135 men and women enrolled in the study in 1960 and then followed up in 1972. The data revealed that being overweight tended to shorten life expectancy up to about age 75. After that age, being heavy didn`t make much of a difference unless someone was seriously obese. People who maintained a healthy, ideal weight generally lived the longest.
A good way to help you lose weight, is to reduce the amount of salt you add to your food. Consuming too much sodium can make you bloated and can also, raise your blood pressure. Instead, try to use other alternatives to salt or just keep your salt intake low.
In this July 11, 2017 photo, puddles of gasoline fill a road in the middle of a cornfield, left behind by fuel thieves in San Bartolome Hueyapan, Tepeaca, Mexico. \"Of all the fuel that is stolen, only 10 percent is sold to the public\" on the sides of roads, said Jesus Morales, the top police official in Puebla state. \"The other 90 percent goes to big business groups, to gas stations, factories.\" (AP Photo/Eduardo Verdugo)
\"We share the same kind of view - that we are big annual tournaments that are hosted in the same venue each year and have clarity in terms of what our brand is. And I repsect what they do, too,\" Desmond said. \"I think it`s probably the reasons we are the premium brands in both our sports.\"Philip Morris International`s operational headquarters are in Lausanne, Switzerland, down the street from a patch of Gallo-Roman ruins, in a sleek building with a cafeteria, gym and a patio facing Lake Geneva. From there, the company is working to hobble the treaty.
When having weight loss surgery, you commit yourself to certain nutrition and dietary requirements. You become committed to a healthy lifestyle with the habits that support your weight loss. Weight loss surgery is a tool to use but you must choose to use that tool.
- as there have been many weight loss clinics cropping up nowadays, you can`t be sure that all of them can give you the results that you need. Beware of clinics promising you of instant weight loss; this can be too good to be true.
You may be wondering, Are these products safe? Good question! Unlike prescription medicines, nutritional supplements aren`t approved by the FDA. Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, supplement manufacturers can make nutrition support statements about their products statements that describe how the product functions in the body. But they aren`t allowed to claim that the product can treat or cure any disease.
In 2005, Benson was crowned the first winner of the popular TV show, which ran for 12 years and has since ballooned into a multi-million-dollar franchise. Benson lost 122 pounds and won $250,000, but he`s since returned to his pre-show weight.
Roth`s new show seems to accept this logic — to some degree. In one scene, he visits Benson at home and sends him out to pick up a fast food dinner in the time Roth says it`ll take to prepare a vegan meal. When Benson returns with a bag of fried chicken sandwiches for his family, Roth has a fresh pasta and vegetable dish ready for them to eat.
That problem wasn`t unique to Benson — a 2016 study from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) followed more than a dozen former \"Biggest Losers\" and  found that of the 14 people studied, 13 regained a significant portion of the weight
they lost on the show. Four were heavier in 2016 than they were before they set foot on the set.
That said, killing yourself for the sake of expediency will backfire. There`s a very clear point of diminishing returns, and there`s a threshold of effectiveness, which, if crossed, will undo our work aimed at mastery and learning.  
Arrests are rarely made because when police move in the thieves run and abandon the trucks. Other tactics to avoid capture include pushing half-full fuel tanks off the back of fleeing trucks, parking vehicles cross-wise on dirt roads or even using chains of women and children as human shields.
Some delegates questioned the extent to which Philip Morris shaped the decisions made at the Moscow conference, saying attendees genuinely disagreed on certain issues. Nuntavarn Vichit-Vadakan, a Thai delegate, oversaw many discussions as the chair of an FCTC committee at the Moscow conference. She said delegates differed over the regulation of e-cigarettes, for instance, and any lobbying the company carried out would not have determined the outcome.
The NIH study of \"Biggest Losers\" — along with a New York Times feature story on the research — suggested that slimming down for good is virtually a biological impossibility for people who have been significantly overweight. Despite forcing their bodies to shed pounds in an intense 3-month boot camp, most of the show`s participants seemed to succumb to powerful hormonal and metabolic forces that were out of their control.
If you have significant weight to lose, how likely is it that you will burn yourself out? Very likely. If you haven`t exercised in a while, how likely is it that you will burn yourself out? Very likely.
In early July, nine people were killed, including five men whose bodies were burned, in a dispute between fuel thieves in the town of Huehuetlan in Puebla state. Morales said the killings involved a gang of distributors trying to collect from local vendors who were unable to meet their sales quotas because of police raids.
Sam Querrey certainly does. The 29-year-old Californian, who will play Marin Cilic of Croatia in the men`s semifinals on Friday, made a point of noting that he was thrilled to have the best Grand Slam performance of his career at Wimbledon.
The object of Philip Morris` efforts, according to the 2014 PowerPoint on corporate affairs, is to \"move tobacco issues away\" from health ministries and demonstrate there are broader public interests at play - that \"it`s not about tobacco.\"
Philip Morris isn`t alone in seeking to weaken the treaty. Ahead of the 2012 FCTC conference, in Seoul, four cigarette giants - Philip Morris, British American Tobacco (BAT), Japan Tobacco International and Imperial Brands Plc - formed an \"informal industry Working Group\" to oppose various proposals on tobacco taxation, according to an internal BAT document reviewed by Reuters.
* Testing old habits. After we`ve had surgery and lost excess weight, we feel great and look great. We think that maybe, just maybe, we can return to some of our old habits. We test once, twice, and before you know it, that old habit has crept into our lives again. The result can be weight regain or a weight loss stall. If you return to the old habits that made you heavy in the first place, you`ll run the risk of becoming heavy again. Creating new healthy habits that replace the old habits is a big step to ensure your weight loss success is permanent.But the article - a single sentence - contains a loophole Philip Morris has exploited. The sentence ends with the words \"in accordance with national law,\" opening the door to arguments by pro-tobacco forces that any lobbying that`s legal in a certain country is permissible when interacting with that country`s representatives. They also argue that a sentence in a related document, the guidelines for Article 5.3, allows for such interactions to take place as long as they are conducted transparently.
Even if the desire for closer ties with the West remains strong among many Iranians -- as shown by the re-election in May of the moderate Rouhani -- the much-anticipated economic fruits of the nuclear deal have been slow to materialize.
Wouldn`t it be nice to wake up and have your excess weight gone? Many people believe that weight loss surgery is similar to waking up thin. Some even consider that bariatric surgery is the \"easy way out\" to lose weight. Once the surgery is performed, the work begins to change your life by changing your unhealthy habits. Weight loss surgery success is yours by avoiding a few simple steps.
\"I`ve seen it a lot with people I work with,\" says Bellatti. \"I`d say nine times out of 10 the people who change slowly and do manageable goals are the people who three years out still have success. I know many people who`ve gone on some kind of crash diet for a week and lose a bunch of weight and a few months later they`re back to square one.\"
Nonetheless, physicians wrote an average of 85,000 prescriptions a week for dexfenfluramine alone. And many commercial weight loss centers jumped on the bandwagon, handing out prescriptions for the drugs without the written consent or knowledge of the dieter`s own doctor.
At the end of the Moscow meeting, on Oct. 18, 2014, Koddermann sent an email congratulating a 33-person
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